Issue/Heft 13 (2013)
© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 13, 2013
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Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 300 K)
|Heft 13||Kombinierte Methoden aus Modellierung, Messung und Geländearbeit||Seite 5-16||Mai 2013|
FRACEK, K., MOSIMANN, T.: Wissensbasierte Modellierung der Mächtigkeit des kalkfreien Bodenbereiches in den Waldböden des Kantons Basel-Landschaft (Nordwestschweiz)
(Knowledge-based modeling of the non-calcareous soil depth of forest soils in the canton Basel-Landschaft (Northwest Switzerland))
The progressive acidification of forest soils leads to a lack of nutrients and increasingly threatens forest ecologies. To assess these risks, area-wide information on forest soil properties that are relevant to soil acidification is needed. In this context, a knowledge-based prediction model to predict the non-calcareous soil depth of forest soils in the Canton Basel-Landschaft (northwest Switzerland) was developed, based on eight predictors/predictor groups. The resulting map provides comprehensible, detailed information on the relevant soil property for 87 % of the forest areas. With the help of these modeled results, the base saturation of forest soils can be estimated, and forest sites with an inadequate nutrient supply can be identified. In the long term, this model is an important tool for assessing acidification risks.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 827 K; Heft 13-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01346)
|Heft 13||Kombinierte Methoden aus Modellierung, Messung und Geländearbeit||Seite 17-32||Mai 2013|
RIEK, W., KALLWEIT, R., RUSS, A.: Analyse der Hauptkomponenten des Wärmehaushalts brandenburgischer Wälder auf der Grundlage regionaler Klimaszenarien – Abgrenzung von Risikogebieten und Schlussfolgerungen für ein Klima-Monitoring
(Principal components of the heat balance of forest ecosystems in the state Brandenburg – Regionalization of risk areas and areas suitable for climate monitoring on the basis of regional climate scenarios)
In the course of global climate change expected modifications in heat balance will likely have a huge impact on the development and stability of Brandenburgian forest ecosystems. In this paper risk areas are statistically identified and regionalized. Furthermore, areas which are suitable for an ecological based climate impact monitoring are determined. The basic idea of the methodological approach is the spatiotemporal analyses of climate indicators using multivariatestatistical procedures. For risk assessment, an algorithm was developed, in which expected temporal changes until the year 2050 or 2095 (climate scenario: A1B) are set in relation to the actual spatial range of ecological heat balance indicators. In this way expected changes can be evaluated concerning their disturbance potential. The estimated disturbance potentials are presented on raster maps with a resolution of 1x 1 km. Forest ecosystems are complex in their cause-effect behavior. Under the same influence conditions various system states are possible, making prognoses difficult. Therefore, the most promising way seems to be the empirical investigation of species-specific norms of reaction and population dynamic potentials of adaption on the basis of the actual climate in special regions. From the empirical results, largescale predictions can be derived especially for the identified risk areas (predicting climate monitoring). Regions suitable for climate monitoring were indentified using a similar approach as used in deriving risk areas. For this, the differences between the actual values of ecological heat balance indicators and the respective average of the total forest area of Brandenburg in the future (decade 2090–2100) were calculated. The regions with maximum similarity to the future conditions are presented on a raster map. In further evaluation steps, the presented results will be combined with high resolution risk indicators for potential water deficiency and drought stress (100 x 100 m grid).
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.0 M; Heft 13-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01350)
|Heft 13||Biodiversitäts-Forschung||Seite 33-55||Mai 2013|
WALENTOWSKI, H., WINTER, S.: Phytodiversitätsmuster in mitteldeutschen Buchenwäldern
(Pattern of plant diversity in beech forests of Central Germany)
This article develops a hypothesis on spatial vegetation patterns within beech forests dominated by Fagus sylvatica. The hypothesis was revealed on an exemplary dataset of beech forests on acidic-oligotrophic soils (61 relevés from Steigerwald and Spessart) and on eutrophic calcareous sites (51 relevés from Hainich) with the aim to describe implications that might result from the young post-glacial vegetation history of Central European beech forests. We infer a cause-and-effect relationship between appropriate variables concerning species combinations, species numbers, species-area-curves, and ELLENBERG indicator values for light with indication for our hypothesis - but without conclusive causality by using an exemplary dataset. Combining our analyses for patterns in space and time we found the following results. The well-known species poorness of beech forests on acidic, oligo- to mesotrophic sites (Luzulo-Fagetum 11 species, Galio odorati-Fagetum 14 species), against those on calcareous sites (Hordelymo-Fagetum 35 species) was confirmed, explicable by limits of nutrient supply for many species of Fagetalia sylvaticae. But the limit does not explain the sparse and infrequent occurrence of frugal Quercetalia robori-petraeae species as well as the low values for all species diversity levels (α-, β- and γ-diversity). Therefore we conclude that the contrast of very low plant diversity between a) beech forest on low-nutrient acidic sites and b) high plant diversity on rich-alkali sites was amplified by biological interactions between the hereditary flora and beech expansion. The hereditary flora on oligotrophic-acidic sites consisted of warmth and light demanding oak forest species and hence was shadowed out (shadow intolerance). However, the flora on eutrophic-calcareous sites consisted of shade-tolerant species of former linden-elm-mixed forests and was easily incorporated in cool-shady beech dominated forests (shadow tolerance).
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.5 M; Heft 13-Aufsatz 6; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01362)
|Heft 13||Biodiversitäts-Forschung||Seite 57-72||Mai 2013|
MÜLLER-KROEHLING, S.: Prioritäten für den Wald-Naturschutz – Die Schutzverantwortung Bayerns für die Artenvielfalt in Wäldern, am Beispiel der Laufkäfer (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
(Priorities for nature conservation in forests – the responsibility concept applied to Bavarian forests, using ground beetles)
The protection of species and habitats is burdened with trade-offs regarding both diverging conservation objectives as well as other objectives in forests, i. e. of economic interest. Calls for special protection of habitats and species or particular protection strategies should always be founded on a sound scientific basis. Besides the threat level, which in itself should thus be scientifically derived and not be based on assumptions, the concept of global responsibility needs to be taken into consideration when defining priorities and strategies for nature conservation. Ground beetles meet all requirements of a model group, since they are a diverse group occurring in all terrestrial habitats and at all elevations and are well-studied. Based on the study of ground beetles and their habitat relations in Bavarian forests, put in relation to their threat level according to the Red Data Book and the list of “responsibility species”, a comparison of the responsibilities by habitat group is presented. Particularly those habitats characterized by extreme site conditions are home to endangered species with a high responsibility level. The existing legal protection of these habitats, which are highly compatible with the EU habitats directive habitats of annex II, particularly the priority ones, needs to be enforced without any concessions. The more common forest habitats, like beech and oak forests, are home to responsibility species that can mostly be protected in managed forests, since they are currently not endangered. Speaking for ground beetles, the strictest protection of forests on extreme habitats with intact site conditions, everywhere in Bavaria, would be of the very highest current priority regarding those species we have the highest responsibility for.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.4 M; Heft 13-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01318)
|Heft 13||Biodiversitäts-Forschung||Seite 73-86||Mai 2013|
MÜLLER-KROEHLING, S.: Zukunftsaussichten des Hochmoorlaufkäfers (Carabus menetriesi) im Klimawandel
(Future prospects of relic bog dweller Carabus menetriesi in the face of climate change)
The raised bog large ground beetle (Carabus menetriesi pacholei) is listed as a priority species in Annex II of the EU Habitat Directive, and is a subspecies for which Germany has a very high conservation responsibility. Its habitats are largely intact raised and transitional bogs and high-elevation spring bogs, including bog forests. In the future climate that is predicted to be warmer and drier, some of this species’ habitats will likely be lost. This is particularly true for the endemic subspecies living in the pre-Alps. Other sites will only be retained if measures are undertaken to re-establish a semi-natural water regime. Among other necessary management measures is strict conservation of all natural and semi-natural bog forests and bog-edge forests. Although the climate envelope for the nominate subspecies extends farther into a drier and also slightly warmer climate, measures to protect its habitat are also warranted. A theory explaining the limited distribution in the prealpine region based on the Ice Age history is presented, since its distribution cannot be explained by the present climatic conditions alone.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.2 M; Heft 13-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01329)
|Heft 13||Biodiversitäts-Forschung||Seite 87-92||Mai 2013|
WEINGARTH, K., ZIMMERMANN, F., KNAUER, F., HEURICH, M.: Evaluation of six digital camera models for the use in capture-recapture sampling of Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) - Evaluierung von sechs Fotofallenmodellen hinsichtlich der Eignung für Fang-Wiederfang Methoden beim Eurasischen Luchs (Lynx lynx)
(Evaluierung von sechs Fotofallenmodellen hinsichtlich der Eignung für Fang-Wiederfang Methoden beim Eurasischen Luchs (Lynx lynx))
Digital outdoor cameras are increasingly used in wildlife research because they allow species inventories, population estimates, and behavior or activity observations. Which camera model is suitable and practical depends on environmental conditions, focus species and specific scientific questions posed. Here we focused on testing cameras appropriate for elusive species that can be identified visually owing to individual coat patterns. Specifically the camera should be adequate for calculating the minimum population of Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) during a systematic monitoring with camera traps. Therefore we tested six digital camera models with regard to trigger speed and the image quality necessary for visual identification of pacing lynx on trails. The decision if a camera model is adequate for the scientific goal was regulated due to priority levels under laboratory conditions. Only one camera model proved to be suitable for camera-trap monitoring. Our practical camera test can be used to evaluate newer models of digital cameras as they become available. This application opens an avenue for a non-invasive population monitoring of rare and elusive species in a low mountain range area.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.0 M; Heft 13-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01330)
|Heft 13||Buchbesprechungen||Seite 93-94||Mai 2013|
HETSCH, W.: Buchbesprechung "Waldforschung im Nationalpark Harz – Waldforschungsfläche Bruchberg: Methodik und Aufnahme 2008/09"
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HETSCH, W.: Buchbesprechung "Naturnahe Waldwirtschaft mit der QD-Strategie"
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