Issue/Heft 15 (2016)
© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 15, 2016
Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 620 K)
|Heft 15||Forstliche Standortskunde||Seite 5-15||September 2016|
JANSSEN, A., SCHÄFFER, J., WILPERT, K. von, REIF, A: Flächenbedeutung der Waldkalkung in Baden-Württemberg
(Extent of forest liming in Baden-Württemberg)
Since the 1980s, forest liming has been used to compensate for atmospheric inorganic acid deposited in Baden- Württemberg. This study evaluates existing forest liming data first compiled by the FVA Baden-Württemberg in 2005. We show a clear concentration of forest liming in the Black Forest, where soils on red sandstone and crystalline rock are prone to acidification. Liming has also been regularly carried out in the Keuper Uplands, the Forest of Odes and on glacial sediments of the Alpine foothills in Upper Swabia. The loamy soils of the lower moraine have experienced a particular increase in forest liming since 2005, demonstrating a shift in liming objectives towards loamy, productive sites. Evaluation of the liming data focuses on materials and techniques and the various liming emphases for the northern Black Forest and northern lower Alpine foothills. The liming documentation is based on analogous maps of the forest offices (scale: forest districts or compartments).
>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.6 M; Heft 15-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-01554)
|Heft 15||Forstliche Standortskunde||Seite 16-33||September 2016|
JANSSEN, A., SCHÄFFER, J., WILPERT, K. von, REIF, A.: Flächenbedeutung der Waldkalkung in Baden-Württemberg, Teil II - Anhang
(Extent of forest liming in Baden-Württemberg, Part II - Appendix)
>> Volltextversion (pdf 3.3 M; Heft 15-Aufsatz 6; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-01564)
|Heft 15||Urban Forestry - Arboristik||Seite 35-42||September 2016|
DADEA, C., CASAGRANDE BACCHIOCCHI, S., LA ROCCA N., MIMMO, T., RUSSO A., ZERBE, S.: Heavy metal accumulation in urban soils and deciduous trees in the City of Bolzano, N Italy
(Schwermetallakkumulation in Böden und Laubbäumen der Stadt Bozen, N-Italien)
Bioindicators are organisms able to provide indirectly or directly information on the impact of pollutants in the environment. The content of heavy metals or other toxic compounds in these living organisms is of great interest to assess the level of contaminants. Leaves of the most common deciduous trees (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Betula pendula Roth, Carpinus betulus L., Cercis siliquastrum L., Ginkgo biloba L., Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus robur L. and Tilia cordata Miller) and two invasive tree species Ailanthus altissima P. Mill. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., in the City of Bolzano (southern Alps in Northern Italy), were therefore studied to assess their suitability as bioindicators for the trace elements Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn, mainly considered as traffic related elements. Leaves and soil samples were investigated, both from high-density traffic roads and control sites of minor traffic impact, such as parks. Our data reveal that Betula pendula has a considerable Zn accumulation potential compared to the other investigated tree species. The maximum value measured for Zn in a Betula specimen is 200 mg kg-1 dry weight. With regard to the soils, considering the geoaccumulation index, most of the analyzed soils belong to the first class, i. e. uncontaminated (Igeo ≤ 0) for all analyzed elements. Moreover, in several samples collected in high traffic areas, Cu and Zn show values within 1 < Igeo ≤ 2 (moderately contaminated). This allows to hypothesize a traffic-related origin for these elements. For this reason, B. pendula can be considered a potential heavy metal accumulator and therefore a good bioindicator for these urban pollutants. Since B. pendula is widely distributed in urban areas in Central and Northern Europe, it can be considered a species suitable for a systematic and comparative monitoring network.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 828 K; Heft 15-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-01530)
|Heft 15||Biodiversitätsforschung||Seite 43-56||September 2016|
HÖCKE, C.E., SPIEGELHALTER, J., GÄRTNER, S.M., REIF, A.: The influence that Picea abies Karst. and Fagus sylvatica L. have on the vitality of Vaccinium myrtillus L. in montane mixed forests of central Europe on silicate bedrock
(Der Einfluss von Picea abies Karst. und Fagus sylvatica L. auf die Vitalität von Vaccinium myrtillus L. in mitteleuropäischen Bergmischwäldern der Montanstufe auf Silikat)
Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is a dwarf shrub with high ecological relevance as habitat and as a food source for many animals in mountain forests of central Europe. This species benefits from conifer forests and declines with an increase of broadleaved tree species in the canopy. The ongoing large-scale conversion from conifer to broadleaved forests may significantly alter the ground vegetation, especially the dominance of a key species such as bilberry. We used morphological indicators to investigate the vitality of bilberry. The first objective was to determine whether the vitality of bilberry is negatively impacted by increasing the proportion of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests. The vitality of bilberry was measured by its cover, height, biomass, shoot length and basal diameter. The second objective was to determine whether these changes in bilberry vitality were related to light, canopy cover, soil pH, organic layer mass and tree species. The data was collected from three study areas in the southern and central Black Forest. The bedrock consisted of gneiss and granite whereas the stands were either: pure beech, a mixture of beech and spruce or pure spruce. The stands were located adjacent to each other. On all three areas a higher vitality of bilberry was observed under spruce compared to beech. Mixed effect models show that the occurrence of spruce is the most important variable explaining the increase in bilberry biomass. Light had a small positive effect, whereas soil properties had negligible effects and were site specific. These results are a strong indication of the negative influence that beech has on bilberry in conifer dominated forests. This has to be taken into consideration when developing silvicultural approaches and should be a consideration when making plans for the preservation of habitat for species like capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.). This is even more important today because the recent trend in central European forestry is to increase the proportion of beech.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.1 M; Heft 15-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-01519)
|Heft 15||Biodiversitätsforschung||Seite 57-68||September 2016|
BLASCHKE, M., ENDRES, U., FÖRSTER, B., BUSSLER, H.: 6000 m² Naturwaldreservat im Fokus – Welche Beziehungen können Artengruppen in nicht bewirtschafteten Laubmischwäldern aufzeigen?
(6000 m² strict forest reserve in focus – What relations may species groups indicate in unmanaged mixed deciduous forests?)
We analysed data on forest structure and some representative species groups in four mixed, deciduous tree dominated reserves, following a new research concept for the long-term monitoring of 26 selected Bavarian strict forest reserves. Species data of ground vegetation, saproxylic beetles, snails and mushrooms were recorded and correlated with structural data for forest cover on a sample plot level. All species groups showed similar patterns in terms of species composition related to structural parameters such as the proportion of beech tree cover and additionally to the presence of hornbeam. The example shows that even this simple approach aimed mainly at monitoring can help to detect possible relationships between species and forest structure. However, precise ecological requirements of specific species, e. g. those of particular importance for nature conservation such as indicators for near-natural conditions and old forest relict species can hardly be studied by this approach alone.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.8 M; Heft 15-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-01518)
|Heft 16||Biodiversitätsforschung||Seite 69-92||September 2016|
REIF, A., BAUMGÄRTEL, R., DISTER, E., SCHNEIDER, E.: Zur Natürlichkeit der Stieleiche (Quercus robur L.) in Flussauen Mitteleuropas – eine Fallstudie aus dem Naturschutzgebiet „Kühkopf-Knoblochsaue“ am hessischen Oberrhein
(Naturalness of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.) on alluvial sites in Central Europe – case study from the Nature reserve “Kühkopf-Knoblochsaue” at the Upper Rhine River, Hesse)
Hardwood floodplain forests can have as many as eight tree species in the forest canopy. This puts them among the forests with the highest tree species diversity in Europe. Additionally, these forests are home to a large number of endangered plant and animal species. However, the absence of oak seedlings during the stand establishment phase of hardwood riparian zones, in what are frequently oak forest communities, is a serious concern for nature conservation. In many places the establishment of oak has been assisted by expensive silvicultural procedures to ensure that Pedunculate oak will constitute at least a small proportion of the species composition in the next generation. An additional theoretical question is, whether Pedunculate oak is a natural component in such floodplain forests, or not. In the Hardwood Floodplain Nature Reserve Kühkopf-Knoblochsaue, located in the state of Hesse, Germany, Pedunculate oak regeneration was studied during an establishment phase on two different unmanaged areas. Here succession was occurring on land newly created by the deposition of sediments near the high water mark following heavy flooding. The data collected included site description, total number of Pedunculate oak, an assessment of their vitality as well as a characterization of their growth. The 4.53 hectare study area contained five structural vegetation types, namely (1) shrub-rich pioneer forest; (2) open to gappy woodland; (3) semi-open to closed woodland; (4) nearly closed woodland, fenced; (5) closed pioneer forest, fenced. On these a total of 155 oaks were inventoried (34 oak trees per ha). Although browsing had hindered the establishment of oak, many vigorous and sturdy specimens were found in all strata. There was strong competition from ground vegetation such as the shade produced which impaired oak seedling growth. Where especially dense stands of goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) and reed grass (Calamagrostis epigeios) occurred, oak regeneration was absent. The stands in the Kühkopf demonstrate that Pedunculate oak can establish successfully on newly created environments such as those resulting from sedimentation after large floods. In these hardwood riparian environments, where competition was initially low and wildlife controlled, the establishment of Pedunculate oak was natural and the trees grew into the tree canopy layer. This is evidence that oak is indeed a natural component of this biotope. The absence of Pedunculate oak natural regeneration, as seen today in many riparian oak stands, can be attributed to changes in flood deposition dynamics that fail to provide the appropriate conditions required for natural oak regeneration processes to occur, combined with high rowdeer densities.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 4.2 M; Heft 15-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de: urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01543)
|Heft 15||Buchbesprechungen||Seite 93||September 2015|
GRÜNBERG, H.: Buchbesprechung - Die Botaniker Thüringens
>> Volltextversion (pdf 851 K)