Issue/Heft 8 (2009)
© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 8, 2009
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Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 1.0M)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 5-7||September 2009|
FÜRST, C., PIETZSCH, K., MAKESCHIN, F.: ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen - Editorial
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.0 M; Heft 8-Editorial; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00800)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 9-20||September 2009|
FRITZ, H., ABIY, M., KLINGER, T., MAKESCHIN, F.: Zukünftige Entwicklung bodenchemischer Parameter auf ehemals emissionsbeeinflussten Waldstandorten
(Future development of soil chemical parameters on formerly emission affected forest sites)
This paper presents scenarios for the future development of selected soilchemical parameters (pH-value, nutrient stocks and heavy metal contents) on fly ash affected forest soils of the Dübener Heide. Twelve forest sites were examined, having different distances from the main emitter and thus lying along a deposition gradient of basic fly ash containing heavy metals. Models were developed for the future development of pH-values and element contents using literature data and actual measurements as well as leaching experiments. According to these model results the most affected site Burgkemnitz will be characterized by superior stocks of calcium and magnesium for duration of the next 100 years. In the organic horizons of this site the contents of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc exceed the threshold values of the BbodSchV (German Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance) presently. But due to high pH-values the mobile contents of these heavy metals are low enough so that currently a risk of damage to plants or microorganisms can not be deduced. Because of continuous acidification the mobile contents of nickel and zinc will exceed the trigger values (PRÜESS 1994) in the next decades. But a high damage is not to be expected. Thus forest management could make use of the improved nutrition conditions at this site on a long-term time scale.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.6 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00811)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 21-30||September 2009|
ZIRLEWAGEN, D.: Regionalisierung der bodenchemischen Drift in der Dübener Heide im Zeitraum 1995–2006
(Upscaling of the soil-chemical drift in the Dübener Heide for period 1995 to 2006)
Data about the soil-chemical status are an essential basis for the ecological assessment of forest management practices. The Dübener Heide is a region with a history of strong changes of environmental factors, including the soil-chemical status. Thus, there is a strong need for maps with landscape- related information about the recent ecological drift. The statistical methods used in this work for analyzing and upscaling the soil-chemical drift for period 1995 to 2006 included ordinary least square regression and validation techniques. Exemplarily for other parameters results for pH-H2O and base saturation are shown. The regionalized soil-chemical data showed an extreme change of the soilchemical status for the time horizon analyzed. Multiple linear regression models were able to explain 71–92% of the total variance of the measurements.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 3.5 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00824)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 31-40||September 2009|
ZIRLEWAGEN, D., WILPERT, K. von: Raum-Zeitmuster von Stoffflüssen im Boden: Verbindung von Sickerwasserchemie und Bodenfestphase
(Spatio-temporal patterns of matter fluxes in soils: linkage between soil solution and soil solid phase)
Time and space dependent maps of cation concentrations of the soil solution have been derived from seasonally adjusted time series data of the soil solution chemistry and regionalized exchangeable cation percentages. For this analysis we used both, statistical methods (ordinary least square regression and validation techniques) and process-oriented methods (Gapon equations). The methods tested at watershed scale showed steady functions of selectivity coefficients and should also be suitable for ICP Forest evaluations (Level I/II). But they are restricted more or less to acidic soils and should not be used in soil layers rich in humus, since adsorption to C-compounds differs from adsorption to clay minerals. The time increments of the models should be not shorter than yearly in order to suppress annual periodicity.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 4.2 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00831)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 41-52||September 2009|
HARTMANN, P., FLEIGE, H., HORN, R.: Veränderung bodenphysikalischer Eigenschaften von Humusauflagen auf ehemals flugaschebeeinflussten Waldstandorten der Oberlausitz
(Modifications of soil physical properties of forest floor horizons at previously fly ash affected forest sites in the region Upper Lusatia)
This study describes the influence of predominantly historical atmospheric depositions of lignite fly ashes upon physical properties of forest soils and especially of forest floor horizons. We compared 6 soil profiles with and without fly ash enrichment in the region Upper Lusatia, Eastern Germany. Fly ash enriched sites have a 1.0 to 1.5 dm thick and densely rooted top horizon consisting of a mixture of humus and fly ash. Uncontaminated forest floor horizons are less thick (<0,6 dm) and less rooted. Fly ash enriched forest floor horizons show higher air capacities, saturated conductivities and particle densities, whereas plant available water is reduced emission source close. Deposition rates were estimated at 150 to 280 t/ha, whereby at sites located close to the emission source the highest values were calculated. The vertical root development of the trees is constrained at locations characterized by temporary water logging and shallow soils with surface-near bedrock. Hence, properties of forest floor horizons and the mineral top soil condition plant available water in the effective root zone. Fly ash enriched forest floor horizons amount to 20 to 42% of plant available water in the effective root zone, whereas uncontaminated forest floor horizons only amount to 8 to 16%.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.7 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00849)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 53-62||September 2009|
FISCHER, B., GOLDBERG, V., BERNHOFER, C.: Der Einfluss klimabedingt veränderter Bestandesstruktur auf die Temperatur- und Verdunstungsverhältnisse in der Dübener Heide/Sachsen
(The effect of climatic changed stand structure on temperature and evaporation conditions in the Duebener Heide/Saxony)
From the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) an expected air temperature increase between 2.5°C and 3.5°C is given for the 21st Century in Central Europe. At the local level (Saxony) also a change in precipitation regimes is expected. Slightly increasing winter and clearly decreasing summer precipitation lead to a reduction of the available ground water in the growing season. These changes lead to a change in the canopy climate, which affects the canopy itself. To investigate this feedback between the forest microclimate and canopy structure development is the major objective of this study. For that, simulations with the vegetation-atmosphere boundary layer model HIRVAC are used to quantify the variability of the forest climate. As input for the model investigations changing canopies for the actual state and for the IPCC scenarios B1 and A2 and for different age categories from the forest growth simulator BALANCE were used. The results show very well the interaction between changing external climate conditions, a variable stand structure, and the variability of the forest microclimate. With the assumption the mean summer temperature will increase, and the summer precipitation will reduced in the future, an intensification of the temperature extremes in the canopy can be expected. But otherwise a maximum damping effect of crown temperature of a possible forest between 5.4°C and 6.2°C could be simulated with HIRVAC depending on the considered climate scenario. Therefore, the forest planning is a possible instrument to control the climate conditions of the forests in the future.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.0 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00858)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 63-70||September 2009|
MOSHAMMER, R., RÖTZER, T., PRETZSCH, H.: Analyse der Waldentwicklung unter veränderten Umweltbedingungen – Neue Informationen für die Forstplanung durch Kopplung von Modellen am Beispiel des Forstbetriebes Zittau
(Analysing forest development under changing environmental conditions – novel information for the forest management by combining models demonstrated for the forest enterprise Zittau)
Forest growth models are versatile instruments for analysing the influence of environmental changes on plant growth. The aim of this study was to analyse possible adaptation strategies by model simulations combining different growth models. By using the process oriented growth model BALANCE we estimated the influence of climate change on tree growth. The reaction patterns of different and region specific forest stands were then implemented as algorithms in the management-oriented growth model SILVA. The growth of forest stands was simulated with SILVA over 30 years focussing on management options to test different adaption strategies. This approach of combining models with different paradigms is demonstrated for the forest enterprise Zittau. The results of the simulations for the Zittau enterprise convey how forest planning can profit by long term information from scenario analysis. Climate change simulations show that forest stands can loose capacity – e.g. increase capacity – to react on management measures. That means a loss of regulation alternatives for forest planning under the used climate change scenario. A hardwood percentage of 27% in the Zittau forest, on the other hand, possibly has a certain buffer function and moderates the climate change effects on production.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.2 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 6; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00866)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 71-88||September 2009|
EISENHAUER, D.-R., SONNEMANN, S.: Waldbaustrategien unter sich ändernden Umweltbedingungen – Leitbilder, Zielsystem und Waldentwicklungstypen
(Silvicultural strategies under changing environmental conditions – Guiding principles, Target system and Forest development types)
The article is mediating the guiding principles for the cultivation of the Saxon state owned forest. While realising the guiding principles with a target system, it is referring first to questions of forestry in general, like the integration of silviculture in the context of forest management, the further developed content of the term sustainability as well as the difficulties of a multi-functional forestry. Based on actual research, site differentiated restrictions for the use of highly mechanised timber harvest systems are discussed concerning soil protection. The basic direction of the silviculture in the site regions lowland, hilly loess-land and Saxon low mountain range with its influences on yield potenzial, necessary expenditures for the regeneration and the resulting requirement of silvicultural reproduction material is examined on the basis of regional prior functions. Forest development types are representing regionally differentiated guidelines and targets of future forest practice. A description of their basic structure and an overview of the research results of both model regions, Dübener Heide and Lausitz, are given.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.8 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 7; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00871)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 89-94||September 2009|
STANG, S., KNOKE, T.: Optimierung der Hiebsatzplanung zur Quantifizierung von finanziellen Ertragseinbußen durch den Klimawandel am Beispiel des Forstbetriebes der Stadt Zittau
(Optimization of the prescribed cut planning to quantify financial yield losses like the climate change at the example of the municipal forest enterprise Zittau)
This paper shows how to identify and estimate financial losses in the forest production. As an example, the consequences of a potenzial climate change and the influence by biophysical risk for stands, as well as limitations of annual harvest and high afforestation costs on the net present value of forest enterprises are demonstrated. Taking the results from a case study for the forest owned by the town Zittau, we show that the deviation of harvest from the optimal age under financial aspects and the costs for afforestation could have a significantly higher importance on the yield than climate change and hazard risks.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.3 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 8; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00889)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 95-105||September 2009|
GOODWIN, B., SUDA, M: Forstwissenschaftler und der Wissenstransfer: Erklärungen für unterschiedliche Kommunikationsstile
(Forest Scientists and Knowledge Transfer: Explanations for Differences in Communication Styles)
This article covers the questions how forest scientists communicate in different styles and how scientists with different communication styles vary. Four different types of communicational behaviour are found. Scientists with these different styles of communication differ in their academic status and their motives for communication. The perceptions of media effects don't differ between the scientists with different communication styles. A third-person-perception is clearly detectable, but it has no effect on the communicational behaviour of scientists.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.0 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 9; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00899)
|Heft 8||ENFORCHANGE – Wälder von heute für die Umwelt von morgen||Seite 107-117||September 2009|
MORISSE-SCHILBACH, M., WERLAND, S.: Forstwissenschaften und die Globale Governance des Waldes
(Forestry Sciences and Global Forest Governance)
Societal and political environments determine research agendas, networks and epistemic identities within the scientific and academic realm. In the case of forestry, it is argued, these environments are increasingly negotiated and discussed (" framed") within inter- and transnational environmental politics (such as biodiversity, climate change). This paper explores in which way and to what extent processes of "global forest governance" impair German forestry sciences. It describes shifts of forestry issues from the local and national towards inter- and transnational levels by focussing on changing actor constellations (emergence of powerful non-forestry actors like NGOs, transgovernmental bureaucracies and epistemic communities) on the one hand and changing political discourses (from local to global forest discourses) on the other. This paper shows that forestry sciences seem to be marginalized in global forest governance processes. Furthermore, data from questionnaires and interviews indicate that within the German forestry sciences community, these shifts are not yet fully acknowledged as significant processes for forest politics in general and for the scientific community in particular. Finally, it proposes strategies to facilitate the lock-in of forestry-related scientific knowledge for the global governance of forests.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.2 M; Heft 8-Aufsatz 10; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-08103)